Jeffrey Kang
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<Crossroad> [He suddenly remembered Sonya’s words: “Go to the crossroads, bow down to people, kiss the earth, because you have sinned before it as well, and say aloud to the whole world: ‘I am a murderer!’”…He simply fell to the earth where he stood…/p. 525] The medieval Christians conceived the tympanum of the church (picture above) as a medium signifying their spiritual renewal, and the action Raskolnikov takes in the quote runs parallel with such concept of a repentant crossroad.

<Crossroad> [He suddenly remembered Sonya’s words: “Go to the crossroads, bow down to people, kiss the earth, because you have sinned before it as well, and say aloud to the whole world: ‘I am a murderer!’”…He simply fell to the earth where he stood…/p. 525] The medieval Christians conceived the tympanum of the church (picture above) as a medium signifying their spiritual renewal, and the action Raskolnikov takes in the quote runs parallel with such concept of a repentant crossroad.

<Human!> [“Was it really crosses I wanted from her? Oh, how low I’ve fallen!...I wanted to cling at least to something, to linger, to look at a human being!"/p. 524] In Repin's work, the tsar is able to acknowledge his human-like emotions only after his tumultuous action, and embraces his only son. Raskolnikov's concession to Christianity (accepting the cross) is also a tumultuous action against his belief. Yet, only after such transition is he able to acknowledge the 'human' within himself.

<Human!> [“Was it really crosses I wanted from her? Oh, how low I’ve fallen!...I wanted to cling at least to something, to linger, to look at a human being!"/p. 524] In Repin's work, the tsar is able to acknowledge his human-like emotions only after his tumultuous action, and embraces his only son. Raskolnikov's concession to Christianity (accepting the cross) is also a tumultuous action against his belief. Yet, only after such transition is he able to acknowledge the 'human' within himself.

<Redemption> [“So this is a symbol of my taking a cross upon myself, heh, heh! That’s right, I haven’t suffered enough yet! Cypress, for simple folk…”/p. 522] In the scene, Raskolnikov is a prodigal son (as depicted in the picture) that seeks to redeem himself to the Dostoevsky's 'virtue' represented by Sonya. Such action took by Raskolnikov marks a starting point to his redemption from his 'prodigal' utilitarianism to Christianity.

<Redemption> [“So this is a symbol of my taking a cross upon myself, heh, heh! That’s right, I haven’t suffered enough yet! Cypress, for simple folk…”/p. 522] In the scene, Raskolnikov is a prodigal son (as depicted in the picture) that seeks to redeem himself to the Dostoevsky's 'virtue' represented by Sonya. Such action took by Raskolnikov marks a starting point to his redemption from his 'prodigal' utilitarianism to Christianity.

<Christian Collectivism> [“We’ll go to suffer together, and we’ll bear the cross together!…"/p. 422] Just like Simon of Cyrene (man on the very left in the picture) who assisted Jesus to Golgotha, Sonya is an assistant and a spiritual guide to Raskolnikov, because the the sin Raskolnikov is trying to redeem through the cross is too burdensome for him. This scene renders the author's collectivist interpretation about the life of a Christian and the importance of a communal relationship.

<Christian Collectivism> [“We’ll go to suffer together, and we’ll bear the cross together!…"/p. 422] Just like Simon of Cyrene (man on the very left in the picture) who assisted Jesus to Golgotha, Sonya is an assistant and a spiritual guide to Raskolnikov, because the the sin Raskolnikov is trying to redeem through the cross is too burdensome for him. This scene renders the author's collectivist interpretation about the life of a Christian and the importance of a communal relationship.

<Agony of the Cross> [“God, what’s become of him!” They both wept, they both endured the agony of the cross during that hour and half of waiting./p. 192] The agony of the cross, in which Pulcheria and Dunya have to endure not only in the scene, but throughout the novel is certainly a consistent theme in the work. Running parallel with the mosaic embodying Jesus' crucifixion, it is not only Raskolnikov that is obliged to suffer from his self-inflicting punishment but also his mom and sister.

<Agony of the Cross> [“God, what’s become of him!” They both wept, they both endured the agony of the cross during that hour and half of waiting./p. 192] The agony of the cross, in which Pulcheria and Dunya have to endure not only in the scene, but throughout the novel is certainly a consistent theme in the work. Running parallel with the mosaic embodying Jesus' crucifixion, it is not only Raskolnikov that is obliged to suffer from his self-inflicting punishment but also his mom and sister.

<Optimism> [The little girl went on shaking; but the boy, upright on his bare little knees, raised his hand regularly, making a full sign of the cross, and bowed to the ground, bumping with his forehead, which seemed to give him special pleasure./p. 182] The boy's father just passed away, and he is sad. But is he pessimistic? No, but rather optimistic. He not only fully acknowledges his father's freedom, but also retains hope that he will be salvaged through Jesus-the concept of the cross.

<Optimism> [The little girl went on shaking; but the boy, upright on his bare little knees, raised his hand regularly, making a full sign of the cross, and bowed to the ground, bumping with his forehead, which seemed to give him special pleasure./p. 182] The boy's father just passed away, and he is sad. But is he pessimistic? No, but rather optimistic. He not only fully acknowledges his father's freedom, but also retains hope that he will be salvaged through Jesus-the concept of the cross.

<Money or Faith?> [There were two crosses on the string, one of cypress and the other of brass, besides a little enamel icon; hanging right there with them was a small, greasy suede purse with a steel frame and ring./p. 78] Just like Matsys' satirical rendering about the preponderance of materialism over religion in the society, the scene demonstrates one's religious temperance oscillating due to monetary allurements. Is it the cross or the purse that holds more significance to one's life?

<Money or Faith?> [There were two crosses on the string, one of cypress and the other of brass, besides a little enamel icon; hanging right there with them was a small, greasy suede purse with a steel frame and ring./p. 78] Just like Matsys' satirical rendering about the preponderance of materialism over religion in the society, the scene demonstrates one's religious temperance oscillating due to monetary allurements. Is it the cross or the purse that holds more significance to one's life?

<Penitent Thief> ["But crucify, O judge, crucify, and having crucified, pity the man! And then I myself will come to you to be crucified, for I thirst not for joy, but for sorrow and tears!"/p. 23] The ultimate human ideal Dostoevsky is attempting to convey through the novel is 'penitent thief,' as depicted in the work above by Titian. The humans' fundamental identity is defined as a 'sinner.' However, whether they repent or not is of a different matter-will you be a good thief or a bad…

<Penitent Thief> ["But crucify, O judge, crucify, and having crucified, pity the man! And then I myself will come to you to be crucified, for I thirst not for joy, but for sorrow and tears!"/p. 23] The ultimate human ideal Dostoevsky is attempting to convey through the novel is 'penitent thief,' as depicted in the work above by Titian. The humans' fundamental identity is defined as a 'sinner.' However, whether they repent or not is of a different matter-will you be a good thief or a bad…